An Article review
3 February 2013
The attack on the United States on September 11, 2001 (better known as 9/11) by Osama Bin Laden rammed a wedge into the relationship between the United States and the Islamic world. In result the U.S. invaded Afghanistan and the invaded Iraq. Professor Irogbe’s article on the occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq argues that the U.S. actions are igniting rather than reducing global terrorism and if U.S. were to withdraw troops from these countries it would promise for global peace and security. The article covers the cost of human and financial resources of the war, abuses committed by invaders including the application of extraordinary rendition, the indefinite detention of prisoners of war without the benefit of trials, the looting of Iraq treasures, and the effects of the seemingly perpetual and unwinnable wars on the polarization of Muslims and Christians in the United States. In the conclusion Professor Irogbe discusses that there is insufficient evidence to establish an optimistic prognosis for the prospects of peace and security in the Middle East. If the United States ends occupation of Islamic territories then it could the turning point for the illusive peace.
After 9/11 there was no serious national debate in the United States on the events that caused the rising global terrorism for fear of one being labeled anti-American. Why would the Islamic community hate America so much that they would commit suicide terrorism? Former President George W. Bush answered repeatedly because “they hate our freedoms,” but Osama Bin Laden showed grievance for the attack against the United States in numerous well-known statements and interviews. The Al Qaeda spoke on the injustice done to the Palestinians, the cruelty of prolonged sanctions against Iraq, the presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia, and the repressive and corrupt nature of U.S.-backed gulf governments. The qualitative and quantitative data helps to argue that the ongoing occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan is igniting global terrorism rather than reducing it. If troops were withdrawn from the two territories it might be a huge change to global peace and security. The paper illustrates on what precipitated the invasions, the aftermath which include lootings Iraq treasures, raping Iraqi women, killing of citizens, waterboarding prisoners of war, polarization of Muslims and Christians, and the cost of human and financial resources. These are all major reasons to end the occupation of the two countries. Americans thought the post-Cold War era would offer global peace and security, but their assumptions were wrong. The end of the Cold War in 1989 was the start of unprecedented and very intensive series of global conflicts. Power had been replaced with collective security, but the collective security by the United Nations against Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait vanished. There is so much controversy about terrorism, but what is it? Terrorism does not have one accepted definition because where you stand depends on where you sit. In simplest terms terrorism is an unlawful use of violence against persons that can result in the death of innocent citizens to intimidate and coerce a government by an aggressor.
The invasion of Afghanistan was a result of 19 members of Osama Bin Laden’s, Al Qaeda network hijacking four American Airlines, a United Airlines 757 and 767 jetliners that were headed to Boston, Newark and Washington. Two planes were slammed in the twin towers killing 3,000 people and injuring 6,000. Another plane plunged in the Pentagon killing 186 people, the fourth plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania after the passengers on the plane charged the hijackers which caused them to lose control of the plane, in result everyone on board died. Iraq felt the United States got what they deserved because of past and present U.S. policies in the Middle East. Palestinians praised the terrorist attacks against...
References: Irogbe, Kema. “United States Occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq: A Hindrance for Combating Global Terrorism.” Journal of the Oxford Round Table, Volume 2011, Number 2, August 2011: 0-27
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