Stimulating Forces To Differentiate
Planned From Unplanned Change
Apple‟s soon to be legacy...
Table Of Content
Apple and Steve Jobs
Current Position of Apple
Smartphone Industry Trends
Force Field Analysis
Kurt Lewin‟s Model
Criticism of Lewin‟s 3-Step Model
Apple Inc. was established in 1977 to design, manufacture and market mobile communication and media devices, personal computers and portable digital music players and sell a variety of related software, services , peripheral, networking solutions and third party digital content and applications. The company employs seventy two thousand employees globally while reporting global revenues in excess of USD 169.40 Billion resulting in a net income of USD 37.75 Billion. The company is headquartered in Cupertino, USA (Financial Times, 2013).
A quick financial survey will quickly reveal that as of August 28, 2013 Apple‟s stock (AAPL: NASDAQ) closed at $490.90, 27.47% up from the 52 week low of $385.10 set on April 19, 2013. They currently have $908.50 million ordinary shares outstanding while there is an adequate free float of 908.14 million resulting in a price to earnings for the trailing twelve months at 12.26 while market capitalization stood at $445.98 billion resulting in an Earnings Per Share (EPS) of $40.04 (Financial Times, 2013)
Steve Jobs was an autocratic leader and brought manifold unplanned changes which worked for Apple ensuring that Apple went on to become the most valuable company in the world. Trouble spurted post 2011 when Steve Jobs passed away leaving Apple to struggle and work to maintain its position as a market leader within the smart phone industry. It is thus identified that a structural and behavioral transformation needs to be undertaken by Apple to address the problems to disseminate its competitors and put Apple back in the driving seat of tomorrow‟s innovations which have always been spearheaded by Apple. In this regard we have chosen to adapt and integrate the Changing Curve by Elizabeth Ross alongside Schein‟s Three Process Model. This is because of the drawbacks with regards to Kurt Lewin‟s model which are too simplistic and mechanistic and are only relevant to small changes in stable market conditions. The model is thus not able to integrate radical transformation change and ignore issues such as politics as well as conflict within an organization.
The term „organizational change‟ is primarily the adjustment of new ideas or behavior by an organization with many perspectives on strategic change and organizational development. Those changes range from technological to structural change including psychological transitioning and organizational downsizing (Choi, 1995). Organizational changes deal with both operational and transformational changes. Baker and Wruck (1989) and Zhou et al. (2006) argue that organizational change occurs in many forms, such as introduction of new technologies (innovations), new products, newer administrative systems or any procedure which is new to an organization.
According to The Field Guide to Consulting and Organizational Development (Authenticity Consulting, 2013), unplanned change usually occurs due to a main and unexpected occurrence to the organization which causes its employees to react in a highly reactive and disorganized fashion. Unplanned change might occur when significant public relations problems occur, poor product performance quickly results in loss of customers, or other disruptive situations arise. Planned change relates to when leaders in the...
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