Organizational Development and Change Management
Organizational Development and Change Management Models and Tools
Adnan Shabbir Mirza
Organizational Development and Change Management
Development is the process of progress and positive change. As in this ever changing business world nothing is stationary, need of change arises due to the failure or antiquation of some process or system. Change is a cord that goes through any kind of organization, no matter what is size, industry or age of the business. Our world is changing so rapidly so it’s important for organizations to respond rapidly to changes. The organizations that cope well with change flourish and thrive but those who fail to do so will have to struggle. Due to everyday change in technology organizations need to be proactive to change and keep them developing. Commonly organizational development (OD) is an individual based change process, where some intervention with individuals is used for the organizational change. So it is generally assumed that OD is the process of change that must come from bottom of organizational hierarchy. Change is generally viewed as a base of OD by people, regardless of planned or unplanned change. However OD is a very broad and powerful process that it can be used in many fields and situations. So first of all we need to understand the term ‘organizational development’. Bennis (1969) defined OD as reaction of change and declared it as educational strategy to update the structure and values of organization. Beckhard (1969) defined OD as “an effort that is; planned, organization-wide and managed from the top to increase organization effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organization’s processes, using behavioral science knowledge”. However this definition is criticized by many other authors and researchers in the field, saying that the business situation is so complex now that planning is very hard thing to do and change cannot be planned in this situation that change just forces itself from many directions. Schein (1980) presented the cultural iceberg in which he showed that change in organization can occur at many lavels. According to iceburg of organizational culture, behaviors, norms, and artifacts are visible to everyone just like the tip of an iceburg, while underling core believes, values and unconscious assupmtions are not perceptible and so are very hard to change. Furthermore he also describe organizational culture as a challege for OD practitioners. According to him OD practitioner have to peel off the layres of culture just like an onion to get to the bottom of organizational norms and believes. “Organization development is any process or activity, based on the behavioral sciences, that, either initially or over the long term, has the potential to develop in an organizational setting enhanced knowledge, expertise, productivity, satisfaction, income, interpersonal relationships, and other desired outcomes, whether for personal or group/team gain, or for the benefit of an organization, community, nation, region, or, ultimately, the whole of humanity” (McLean, 2006). Now that we have the definition of OD, question is how an organization is going to channel the change into organizational development process. According to McLean (2006) organization development process need to be; * Aligned with organizational objectives.
* System oriented.
* Based on behavior science.
* Long-time oriented.
* Focus on process orientation for goal attainment.
* Based on teamwork.
The OD has progressed into many different approaches all aimed at enabling great improvements in organizational performance through specific and planned interventions. There are four major OD interventions that are: 1. Action Search
2. Appreciative Inquiry
3. Future Search
4. Whole System Intervention
Most of organizations tank some OD initiatives...
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