Mangerial and leadership skills

Topics: Change management, Decision making, Management Pages: 25 (7926 words) Published: December 30, 2013
 MANAGERIAL AND LEADERSHIP SKILLS (REVIEWED QUESTIONS) Question no.1
Select a case you know where resistance to change was observed, suggest means of managing them. Resistance to change is the action taken by individuals and groups when they perceive that a change that is occurring as a threat to them. Change faces two forces when introduced, the supporting forces (driving force) and the opposing forces (restraining force). For change to take place, the supporting force should be greater than the opposing forces. Here under are suggested ways of managing the change in the selected case: Education

Individuals in the school organization are objected to be educated about the nature of and need for change before implementing and the logic of change needs to be explained. When resistance is based on inaccurate and lack of information, this strategy seems work best. Participation

Allowing people to planning, designing and implementing the changes provide school members to contribute ideas and advices that lead change. This strategy is useful when change initiators do not have all the information they need to design the changes and other members have important information and considerable power to resist. Facilitation and support

With the goal of helping to deal with resistance by emotional and material help; people having hardships of change are actively listened by school administrators about their ideas, problems and complaints with using their ideas that have merit. That is, supportive principals make the work environment more pleasant and enjoyable for change process. This strategy is essentially utilized when school members are frustrated by work constraints and difficulties that are encountered in change process and have adjustment problems.

Negotiation and agreement
Incentives to actual or potential change resistors in the schools are offered in negotiation and agreement method. In fact, trade-offs for special benefits are arranged with these resistors and unblocking of the change initiatives is assured. This approach is preferred when someone in the school organization clearly loses something of value in change process and has power to resist. Manipulation and co-optation: In order to reach the desired change, influencing other people in organization is attempted, the necessary information is provided and the required events for change are structured. When aforementioned tactics do not work and are seen as expensive, manipulation and co-optation approach is common. Explicit and implicit coercion

Change initiators employ the force of their authority for acceptance of the change by people in organization. Resistors in the schools are threatened with undesirable situations if they do not go along the proposed changes. When speed is essential like in crisis situations and change agents have considerable power, this method may be used. However, it should be kept in mind that there are negative effects of using coercion such as frustration, fear, revenge and alienation which in turn may give birth to poor performance, dissatisfaction and turnover. Question no. 2

Why do people resist change?

Organizational change is a process in which a company or organization changes its working methods or aims in order to develop and deal with new situations. Misunderstanding about the need for change/when the reason for the change is unclear — If staff do not understand the need for change you can expect resistance. Especially from those who strongly believe the current way of doing things works well…and has done for twenty years! Fear of the unknown — One of the most common reasons for resistance is fear of the unknown. People will only take active steps toward the unknown if they genuinely believe – and perhaps more importantly, feel – that the risks of standing still are greater than those of moving forward in a new direction Lack of...
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