2) Types of OD Practitioners
3) Advantages and disadvantages of Internal/External
3.1 Internal OD Practitioners
3.1.1 Advantages of Internal OD Practitioners
3.1.2 Disadvantages of Internal OD Practitioners
3.2 External OD Practitioners
3.2.1 Advantages of External OD Practitioners
3.2.2 Disadvantages of External OD Practitioners
4) Criteria in choosing Internal or External OD Practitioners
5 4.1 Type of change
4.2 Time required
4.3 Knowledge and skills required to implement change
4.4 Political situation within the organisation
Organisational change occurs because there is a need for change and this need for change is due to the environmental changes around us. In order for organisations to be successful, they would have to adapt to the changes that are on-going and morph in order to keep up. It is under these pressures that companies are forced to downsize, re-engineer, flatten their structures, go global and even initiate more sophisticated technologies (Waddell, Cummings, & Worley, 2007). These days, it has become common to hear of the many challenges faced by organisations. The one change that has impacted organisations the most is the realisation that people, are the main competitive advantage an organisation can have (Ruona & Gibson, 2004). And therefore, in order to make changes, a leader is required; the leader, who is also known as the “Change agent”, can be anyone with the power or authority to implement and conduct the change process in an organization so as to help it achieve its objectives (Nelson & Quick, 2007).
2. Types of OD Practitioners
Basically, there are 3 different types of OD practitioners
1) Professional people that can be either internal or external consultants 2) People who specialised in the OD field
3) Top management who are proficient in OD and utilize it to their own work scope (Waddell et al., 2007)
All OD practitioners should have a mixture of personality and traits, experiences of all kinds and knowledge and skills (Yee, 2013). With these 3 different types of OD practitioners comes about the set of skills that they are required to have. Some basic skills in OD practitioners are leadership, project management, communication skills, problem-solving skills, inter-personal skills and personal skills (Brown & Harvey, 2006). 3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Internal/External OD Practitioner These days, internal OD practitioners usually found within the human resource (HR) department. There are five structural models to be taken into consideration: 1) Traditional, this is OD within HR.
2) Independent, which is a freestanding unit.
3) Integrated, which is every HR person an OD practitioner and vice versa. 4) Strategy, which is OD being an integral part of the strategic planning function. 5) Decentralized, which is part of a business or regional unit. (Burke, 2004).
4.1 Internal OD Practitioner
Internal OD Practitioners play a significant role in managing changes within. For example, Singapore Airlines, SIA has a straight organization structure with a wide span of control, which allows for freedom to build a more adjustable business which entitles people to create decision and to improve the jobs (Heracleous & Wirtz, 2009). SIA often looked for intelligent leader from within the organisation and they focus on their human resource.
4.2.1 Advantages of an Internal OD Practitioner
It is time-saving in identifying and understanding problems faced by the organisation as the internal OD Practitioner would have intimate knowledge of the organisation and its dynamics. They are also aware of the culture, informal practices and have access to a wide variety of information. In addition, they will be easily accepted by the staff members as they...
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