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Many factors drive change in a business. Lewin identified four forces. In Lewin’s model there are forces driving change and forces restraining it. Where there is equilibrium between the two sets of forces there will be no change. In order for change to occur the driving force must exceed the restraining force Lewin’s analysis can be used to Investigate the balance of power involved in an issue, Identify the key stakeholders on the issue, Identify opponents and allies, Identify how to influence the target groups. Below is a diagram showing Lewins theory.
Generally factors driving change will be categorised into either internal or external factors, Some examples of the internal forces that drive change include, Desire to increase profitability, Reorganisation to increase efficiency, Conflict between departments, To change organisational Culture. External forces examples include Customer demand, Competition , Cost of inputs, Legislation & taxes, Political , Ethics & social values, Technological change. One theory used to support change is based on Prosci's research of the most effective and commonly applied change. most change management processes contain the following three phases: Phase 1 - Preparing for change (Preparation, assessment and strategy development) Phase 2 - Managing change (Detailed planning and change management implementation) Phase 3 - Reinforcing change (Data gathering, corrective action and recognition) Below is an example of the support offered by Proscis research.
The change curve is a model widely used by all sorts of irganizations managing change, The Change Curve model describes the four stages most people go through as they adjust to change. When a change is first introduced, people's initial reaction may be shock or denial, as they react to the challenge to the status quo. This is stage 1 of the Change Curve. Once the reality of the change starts to hit, people tend to react negatively and move to stage 2 of the Change Curve: They may fear the impact; feel angry; and actively resist or protest against the changes. Some will wrongly fear the negative consequences of change. Others will correctly identify real threats to their position. As a result, the organization experiences disruption which, if not carefully managed, can quickly spiral into chaos.
For as long as people resist the change and remain at stage 2 of the Change Curve, the change will be unsuccessful, at least for the people who react in this way. This is a stressful and unpleasant stage. For everyone, it is much healthier to move to stage 3 of the Change Curve, where pessimism and resistance give way to some optimism and acceptance.
At stage 3 of the Change Curve, people stop focusing on what they have lost. They start to let go, and accept the changes. They begin testing and exploring what the changes mean, and so learn the reality of what's good and not so good, and how they must adapt.
By stage 4, they not only accept the changes but also start to embrace them: They rebuild their ways of working. Only when people get to this stage can the organization can really start to reap the benefits of change.
Kotter and Schleshinger have also produced a model to support change, this particular model is used to prevent, minimize, or decrease resistance to change. According to Kotter and Schlesinger there are four reasons that certain people are resisting change, these include; Parochial self-interest (Some people are concerned with the implication of the change for themselves and how it may affect their own interests rather than considering the effects for the success of the business. Misunderstanding (communication problems; inadequate information) Low tolerance to change ( certain people are very keen on security and stability in their work) Different assessments of the situation ( some employees may disagree on the reasons for the change and on...
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