to the presence of an infectious agent(s) or its toxin(s), (2) that occurs during a hospital admission, (3) for which there is no evidence the infection was present or incubating at admission, and (4) meets body site-specific criteria.6 Patient-days were defined as the total number of days that patients were in the hospital. Data sources
The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system. The NNIS system was a voluntary network of U.S. hospitals collaborating with CDC to monitor HAIs from 1970–2005. Hospitals participating in NNIS provided acute care, had 100 or more beds, and a minimum of one full-time equivalent infection control practitioner for the first 100 occupied beds. Detailed methods of the NNIS system are described elsewhere.6 Hospitals participating in NNIS were not selected randomly and might not represent all acute care hospitals in the United States. We used data from 283 participating NNIS hospitals in 2002; these contributed 2.3 million patient-days of information from 678 intensive care units (ICUs). National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS).
The NHDS is an annual CDC probability survey of characteristics of inpatients discharged from nonfederal short-stay hospitals in the United States. Methods for NHDS have been described extensively.10,11 Briefly, survey sampling is conducted in three stages. First, the geographic area (e.g., counties) is sampled; second, hospitals are selected within those geographic areas; and third, patient discharges are sampled within selected hospitals. Patient records are reviewed to collect information on characteristics of the patie(e.g., counties) is sampled; second, hospitals are selected within those geographic areas; and third, patient discharges are sampled within selected hospitals. Patient records are reviewed to collect information on characteristics of the patient (e.g., age, gender), procedures performed, diagnoses, and dates of admission and discharge. Patient-days are calculated by counting...
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