Running Head: Global Terrorism 1
The Effects of Global Terrorism on U.S. Foreign Policy
By Claude Smith
University of Maryland University College
Global Terrorism 2
Before we can cover the effects of global terrorism on United States foreign policy, we have to define global terrorism. According to World English Dictionary terrorism is the use of violence and threats to intimidate or coerce, especially for political means. Some forms of terrorism take a global or transnational scale when it transcends national borders and often targets people and locations other than the ones directly at issue (Patterson 2011). The events of September 11th 2001 were an example of global terrorism. They were an attempt to make Western Powers, like the United States, rethink their presence in the Middle East. This wasn’t an attack by a sovereign nation like the attack at Pearl Harbor by Japan. These were by terrorist groups that were spread across multiple continents. Global terrorism led to the global war on terrorism resulting in military action in Afghanistan whose Taliban-led government had granted sanctuary to the al Qaeda terrorist that carried out the September 11th attacks on the United States. This also led President George W. Bush to create the preemptive war doctrine which allowed the United States to attack a potentially threatening nation even if the threat had not yet reached a serious and immediate level, leading to the War in Iraq (Patterson 2011).
These global terrorist attacks would change how the United States does business in many different ways, from America’s national defense and security policy to how America distributes foreign aid. The attacks resulted in the first major reorganization of the United States national security bureaucracy since the Department of Defense was reformed from the War and Navy Departments after World War II. The reorganization created the Department of Homeland Security, which was created in 2002 to Coordinate domestic antiterrorism efforts, secure the nation’s borders, enhancing defense against biological attacks, training emergency personnel to respond to attacks, and coordination efforts to stop domestic terrorism (Patterson 2011).
The Department of Homeland Security would ensure safe international trade as well as commercial
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activity across and within the country’s borders. It would do this by realigning organizations such as the Transportation Security Administration, Federal Aviation Administration, American Association of Railroads, Federal Transit Administration, United States Department of Transportation, and U.S. Customs. These organizations are working together to devise efficient and effective solutions that will enhance transportation security without adversely affecting commerce and daily life (Johnston 2004).
The Department of Justice under the Bush administration would institute programs like the Terrorism Information and Prevention System and the Patriot ACT, as well as new immigration regulations which involve extensive questioning, fingerprinting, and other such measures regarding individuals of Islamic decent. Soliciting private information has raised questions about privacy rights and basic privileges of immigrants and nonresident aliens within the United States. Inconvenience to US citizens in the form of heightened security checks has also resulted in delays, dissatisfaction, and perceived harassment across the nation’s airports and at rail and bus terminals. Much criticism has...
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