Vol. 4, No. 12
International Journal of Business and Management
Analysis and Evaluation of Organizational Change Approaches
Yuan Liu Department of Fundamental Education, Lianyungang Teacher's College Lianyungang 222006, China E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract
Organizational change is the trend for the further development and which been explained is the enduring quest of scholars in many disciplines. Prescriptive approach and emergent approach are two main types of models for organizational change. The ‘Seven S Framework’ from Peters and his colleague to show the interrelationships between different aspects of corporate strategy. Mintzberg developed his rational concept of an organisation as composed of five segments and uses his model flexibly to develop five different configurations of structure Keywords: Organizational, Prescriptive, Emergent, Change 1. Introduction
“Explaining organizational change has been an enduring quest of scholars in many disciplines. Change and development process are central to such organizational phenomena as careers, group decision-making, organizational strategy formation, innovation, and interorganizational networks. Contemporary intellectual currents, exhibited in the rising interest in such topics as individual and organization life cycles, structuration theory and nonlinear systems thinking.” (Poole, Van de Ven, Dooley, Holmes, 2000) In this article, a case study will be introduced to analyse and evaluated the theories of change management. 2. Two Approaches and a Framework
2.1 Prescriptive and Emergent Approaches There are two main types of models for organisational change: prescriptive approach which works best where it is possible to move clearly from one state to another and emergent approach which is used in an unpredictable and unplanned fashion. “Planned change (prescriptive approach) is a term first coined by Kurt Lewin to distinguish change that was consciously embarked upon and planned by an organisation, as averse to types of change that might come about by accident, by impulse or that might be forced on an organisation.” (Marrow, 1969) Since planned change first mentioned by Kurt Lewin, lots of models have been developed. But they all take three-stage approach which was adapted by Edgar Schein (1964) as essential, which consists of unfreezing existing behaviour, changing behaviour, and refreezing new behaviour. As the pioneer method of change management, weaknesses of prescriptive approach are obvious. First, if the environment is turbulent and the new destination state is unclear, company is impossible to move clearly from one state to another. Second, where major learning of new methods or substantial long-term investment is needed for the new situation, it may not even be clear when the new refrozen state has been reached. Third, it may be unrealistic if the politics within the organisation remain in flux, which means the agreement on the new refrozen state is possible. Fourth, this type of models relies on the imposition of change on the employees concerned. This may be totally inappropriate in some circumstance. (Lynch, 2005: P764) “Emergent change consists of ongoing accommodations, adaptations, and alternations that produce fundamental change without a priori intention to do so. Emergent change occurs when people re-accomplish routines and when they deal with contingencies, breakdowns, and opportunities in everyday work.” (Burnes, 1996: P291) Though there are no universal applicable rules for emergent change. But models of this type all tend to stress five features of organisations which including structures, cultures, organisational learning, managerial behaviour, and power and politics. (Burnes, 1996: P298) Especially, Pettigrew and Whipp’s five factors theory provides a useful way of taking the facts from a strategic change situation and structuring them to highlight the important items. This model consists of five interrelated 234...
References: International Journal of Business and Management
Burnes, B. (1996). Managing Change: The Emergent approach to change. Person Education Limited (2004 fourth edition). P291- P325. Caldwell, R. (2006). Agency and Change. Raymond Caldwell. Cobbenhangen, J. (2000). Successful Innovation. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK. Northampton, MA, USA. Cole, G.. (2004). Management Theory and Practice: Organising for Management. Thomson, (2004 Sixth edition). P210. Fenton, E., & Pettigrew, A. (2000). The innovating organization. SAGE Publications Ltd London. Griffiths, K., & Williams, R. (1998). A Learning Approach to Change. GOWER. USA. Henry, J., & Mayle, D. (2002). Managing Innovation and Change. The Open University, (2002,Second edition).UK. Lynch, R. (2005) .Corporate Strategy: The Implementation Process. Person Education. Limited, (2006 fourth edition). P. 679-P805. Macdonald, S. (2000). Information For Innovation. Oxford, UK. Marrow, AJ. (1969). The Practical Theorist: The Life and Work of Kurt Lewin. Teachers College Press (1997 edition): New York. Merli, M., & Wheeler. (1995). Beyond Business Process Reengineering. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, UK. Mintzberg, H. (1983). Structure in Fives: Designing Effective Organisations, Prentice-Hall. Poole, S. M., Van de Ven, A, Dooley, K., & Holmes, M. (2000). Organizational Change And Innovation Processes. Oxford. UK. Rouse, William, B. (1992). Strategies For Innovation. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, UK. Schein, E. (1964). The Mechanics of Change.W. G.. et al (eds), Interpersonal Dynamics, Dorsey Press. UK. Tidd, J. Bessant, J., & Pavitt, K. (2003). Management Innovation, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, (2003,the second edition), UK. Turbulent environment Large-scale transformation Level: The organisation Focus: Culture Approach: Emergent change Slow transformation Slow change Level: Individual/Group Focus: Attitudes/behaviour Approach: Planned change Level: Individual/Group Focus: Tasks and procedures Approach: Kaizen Tayloristic or Level: The organisation Focus: Structure and processes Approach: Bold stroke Rapid transformation Rapid change
Small-scale transformation Stable environment Figure 1.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document