Models and Theories of ChangeLDR/515Week2FIVE DIFFERENT MODELS AND THEORIES OF CHANGE. DISCUSSING THE VALIDITY AND UTILITY OF THE MODELS. I. KURT-LEWIN THEORY OF CHANGE:This theory is also known as the Unfreeze-Change-Refreeze Model of Change. Kurt-Lewin proposed three simple steps to describe the "unfreeze-change-refreeze model. It basically means going from the State A into an unfrozen, change, and then reforming in a different pattern,1.The first step, unfreeze involves the process of letting go of certain restrictive attitudes during the initial stages through creating motivation and readiness to accept change. 2.The second step, "change" involves alteration of self-conceptions and ways of thinking through cognitive restructuring. 3.The third step, "refreeze" involves solidifying or crystallizing the changes into a new, permanent form for the individual/ organization by helping the client to integrate the new point of view into the existing corporate agenda . The practical example, validity and utility of the model:The models utility is in planned change, for example in a GE manufacturing plant we want to raise production at a particular level, we will conduct a systematic study to analyze what factors are helping towards achieving higher production level and what factors are pushing production down. After that, a planned effort is made to attain the new level and then stabilize on those levels. Then same process is repeated again. The validity of the method is established because in every new situation equilibrium develops. In the manufacturing field, once a certain level of production level is achieved it stabilizes at that level. Therefore efforts are made in the system for planned change that can be flexible and validated (Edgar H. Schein, 2002) . II TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT:The Definition:"TQM is a set of systematic activities carried out by the entire organization to effectively and efficiently achieve company objectives so as to provide products and services with a level of quality that satisfies customers, at the appropriate time and price." (John Stark, 1998)Total Quality Control (TQC)-driven environments are based on advancing continuous improvement at every level of the organization. To accomplish this improvement, there must be on becoming a learning organization, not only at the operational level, but also at a conceptual level, where mental models need to be altered as the organization's deep-rooted assumptions and norms are challenged in order to reframe problems and generate radically different solutions. Organizations will benefit from using the seven TQC tools (process mapping, flow-charting, force field analysis, brainstorming, Pareto chart, cause-and-effect diagram, stratification, check sheet, histogram, scatter diagram, and control charts) as analytical means of understanding and improving processes. These tools and techniques are used for identifying, measuring, prioritizing and improving processes, which are critical to quality. Again these ideas and methods are implemented through methodology of DRIVE (Define, Review, Identify, Verify, Execute) . HOW TQM IS A TOOL OF CHANGEFrom the above discussion it is clear that it is tool which needs to be incorporated at all levels of the organization which can meet the changing customer expectations. At all levels and cross level teams are formed to solve problems through above process. Team working skills have to be imparted in whole organization. Ownership and empowerment are achieved. Innovation and creativity are other products of system. In sum we can say that apart from being an effective process of improvement, it is also a powerful management tool for bringing change for all round improvement. The practical example, validity and utility of the model:A wide variety of organizations have implemented the program under TQM, Six Sigma, rigorous implementation of ISO and using it as a management tool of continuous improvement. The famous examples are...
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