INTRODUCTION Organisations today recognise the need for change. The "new economy"� of the twenty-first century requires organisations to adapt to changing markets, innovate new products or services, expand customer bases, trade or deliver goods and services in new ways like e-commerce, manage rapid growth or decline or become global in their outlook. The purpose of organisational change is to improve organisational efficiency, effectiveness and productivity. To draw on the metaphor of an organisation as a living organism, an organisation has to change in order to survive; not changing could mean death.
Two main forms of change that this essay will look at are: Organisational Development (OD) and Organisational Transformation (OT). This essay will also look at the difference between OD and OT.
ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (OD) What is organizational development? Over the years there have been a number of definitions provided by various authors, they all suggest that the central characteristic of OD is the fusion between knowledge and organizational practice.
" A system wide application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies structures and processes for improving an organizations effectiveness"� (Cummings and Worley, 1993, page 2).
"OD should improve the internal operations of the organisation by opening up communication, by decreasing internal destructiveness, such as win-lose conflicts, and by increasing creativity in problem solving."� (Berry and Houston, 1993, page 514) LEVIN'S THREE PHASE MODEL AND ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Practitioners argue there are three models that underpin any OD effort. They are, action research model, Levin's three-step model of system change and phases of planned change. Managers can use change models as valuable tools in facilitating the process of change.
Lewin's (1958, in Burke, 1994) three-phase model of change uses an ice cube analogy, unfreezing, movement and refreezing. This model, though simple, ultimately results in new behavior needed for successful change. The unfreezing step is the dissolving of the present social systems or behavior. This may require some confrontation or reeducation. The next step, movement, involves actions taken to change behavior from the old to the new. This may require restructuring or interventions. The final step, refreezing, requires actions to establish the new behavior and make it permanent (Burke, 1994).
OD is an expansion on Lewin's model that involves action research, where direct action is taken on the interpretive indications of research data through a process of feedback, and planned phases of change (Burke, 1994). OD is as Burke (1994, p 54) defines as a planned process of change in an organization's culture through the utilization of behavioral science technology and theory. It is a long-term process that aims to reinforce new behaviors and institutionalize change. It usually requires the use of an external change agent rather than led by management. Burke (1994, p72) describes the seven phases to be followed by an OD consultant as entry, contracting, diagnosis, feedback, planning change, intervention and evaluation.
These gradual, humanistic models aim to anchor behavioral change in an organisation by affecting a cultural change. These models can produce the behavioral changes that typify a successful change initiative.
Lippitt, Watson and Westley (1958, in Burke, 1994)) model of planned change expands Lewin's three-step model to five phases. The five phases are: 1. Development of a need for change (Lewin's unfreezing) 2. Establishment of a change relationship 3. Working toward change (moving) 4. Generalization and stabilsation of change (refreezing) 5. Achieving a terminal relationship Organizational Development emphasis is on process, its models are linear, and focuses on incremental and continuous change. OD places great dependence on the change...
References: Cummings, t. G. and Worley, C. G. (1993) Organizational Development and Change. 5th edition, St. Pauls, MN: West.
Burke, W., (1994) Organization Development: A Process of Learning and Changing, Addison Wesley Publishing, New York.
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