Collocations

Topics: Verb, Subject, Syntax Pages: 14 (3753 words) Published: June 10, 2014


University Bayreuth
Phraseology
Collocations
Dr. Thomas Schönweitz
WS 2013/2014

Çiğdem ÇAVDAR
1319936

Table of Contents

1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………...3 2. Definition of Collocation……………………………………………………...3 2.1. Grammatical Collocations……………………………………………………4 2.2. Types of Grammatical Collocations…………………………………………4 2.2.1. noun + preposition……………………………………………………………4 2.2.2. noun + to + infitive……………………………………………………………4 2.2.3. noun + that-clause……………………………………………………………4 2.2.4. preposition + noun combination…………………………………………….5 2.2.5. adjective+preposition combination………………………………………….5 2.2.6. predicate adjective + to + Infinitive construction…………………………..5 2.2.7. adjective+that-clause……………………………………………………........5 2.2.8. Collocational Verb Patterns…………………………………………….........5 2.3. Lexical Collocations…………………………………………………………..8 2.4. Types of Lexical Collocations…………………………………......................9 2.4.1. (usually transitive) + noun/ pronoun (or prepositional phrase)...................9 2.4.2. (meaning eradication and or nullification) + a noun....................................9 2.4.3. adjective+noun……………………………………………………………....10 2.4.4. noun+verb……………………………………………………………………10 2.4.5.noun+noun……………………………………………………………………10 2.4.6. adverb+adjective…………………………………………………………….10 2.4.7. verb+adverb…………………………………………………………………10 3. The Importance of Collocations……………………………………………10 4. Entry Structures of Collocations…………………………………………...11 5. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………14 6. References……………………………………………………………………14

PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS AND DICTIONARIES
1.Introduction
It seems universally acknowledged in all languages that words often co-occur with other words in units. However, they are not always freely combined nor individually analyzable. Their co-occurences are adhered to some grammatical principles. The English prepositional phrase, at the moment, for example, is subject to grammatical choice of the preposition at rather than other random prepositions like on or in. Another example, verbal phrase look forward to is followed by gerund and not infinitive. Therefore, such phrases are also called lexico-grammatical units (Nattinger and DeCarrico, 1992:8). These units are often confusing to learners not only because of their various semantic and syntactic requirements like the above examples, but also the double-function of their elements. Many words that combined with verbs can be used as either prepositions or adverbs, for example: above, across, along, before, behind, off, on, over, etc.(Thomson and Martinet, 1980:82) The examples for consideration are: (a) He got off the bus at the corner. Off in this got off verb combination is a preposition, and (b) He got off at the corner. Off that goes with the verb got in (b) is an adverb (also called adverbial particle).The co-occurence of off following got in (a) is expressing predictable direction and therefore is not as fixed as the one following got in (b) which expresses new meaning started.

2. Definition of Collocation

Nattinger (in Carter and McCarthy, 1988:76) suggests that language is basically a “compositional” process in which many of its words co-occur together forming single units of meanings. He calls these as lexical phrases or word combinations; and collocations are among other terms of lexical phrases. However, collocations themselves range from “lexico-grammatical unit” to “free combination”. The term “collocation” is actually only one among other terms for similar concept: word combination. Nattinger and DeCarrico (1992:21) define collocations as “strings of words that seem to have certain ‘mutual expectancy’, or a greater-than chance likelihood that they will co-occur in any text.” In addition to that, the following is an explanation by Benson, Benson, and Ilson (1986 in Bahns, 1993:57): In English, as in other languages, there are many fixed,...

References: BENSON. Morton; Evelyn BENSON; Robert ILSON.1997. The BBI Dictionary of English Word Combinations.Amsterdam
BENSON. Morton; Evelyn BENSON; Robert ILSON.1986.The BBI Combinatory Dictionary of English. John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Ronald Carter, Michael McCarthy. 1988.Vocabulary and Language Teaching.Longman
Nattinger, J. (ed). 1987. Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary. London: Collins
Nattinger, J.R. and DeCarrico, J.S. 1992. Lexical Phrases and Language Teaching London: Longman
Bahns, J. 1993.”Lexical collocations: a contrastive view” ELT Journal 47(1):56- 63. Oxford : Oxford University Press.
Kennedy, G. 1990. “Collocations: where grammar and vocabulary teaching meeet” in Language Teaching Methodology for the Nineties, RELC, Anthology Series 24.
Thomson, A.J. and Martinet, A.V. 1980. A Practical English Grammar.Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Diana Lea.2003. Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English. Oxford University Press.
Yule,George.1985. The study of Language:An Introduction .Cambridge University Press.
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