Change Management Literature Review

Topics: Change management, Implementation, Quality management Pages: 13 (4791 words) Published: June 11, 2013
Coverpage, table of contents, appendences
Introduction
With our main research question we aim at exploring the importance of effective change management and the characteristics of a successful change management program in a hospital. The main research question can be formulated as: To what extend is change management necessary and how can it most efficiently be implemented in a hospital? By understanding the importance of effective change management we can facilitate our commitment to the development of a successful change management program. By gaining insight into the different factors that can contribute to successful change management, we can guide the design of an appropriate change management program. In the following pages, it will be shown that as the environmental characteristics and demands change, the success of an organization will be determined by its ability to adapt and evolve – in other words, successfully change. Successful change requires successful change management. Our sub-questions attempt to determine what is successful change management and how can be achieved despite the obstacles. Specifically, with the help of generic and empirical studies we attempt to explore general characteristics of (successful) change management, change management practices that contribute to success or failure, possible obstacles (e.g. resistance to change), the importance of employee engagement, and ways of achieving the readiness that is necessary for successfully implementing organizational change.

Sub-question 1: What is (successful) change management (characteristics)? Generic study
In the article: “The art of balancing” Jeanie Daniel Duck (1993) describes several important issues that come across in change management processes. The author argues that change is a personal and intense process for each individual in an organization. Every staff member must think feel or do something different during a change process. Therefore, corporate change is a complicated and unwished item on most of the agenda’s from companies especially since most of the problems have never been confronted and there is no clear direction or indication of what will happen. For most of the managers models that they use for operational flaws do not work for managing change. Change can be seen as when a patient is undergoing several operations at the same time, each operation will be successful but the patient will die of shock. This example indicates that with change the main task is to manage the dynamic in general and not all the pieces (operations) separately which can be done by teaching all employees how to think strategically, recognize patters and anticipate problems before they occur. Unlike operating machines or performing one procedure at the time change is something that involves both of these activities in combination with a fixed set of relationships. Hence, the core of managing change is balancing a mobile. Usually when the change process is a working progress in an organization, the organization works on a Total Quality Management process at the same time. This TQM process entails items such as: employee empowerment, process reengineering and several other tools designed for performance improvement . This TQM process however will not work when the change is not connected to each single step that is connecting and balancing the whole process. As already mentioned, the most important task in change is to understand how one part of the whole process balances off the other part, changes the rest and sequences and affects the pace. Finally, one of the critical examples for balancing is the conversation between the board of directors or company leaders and the followers or those who are expected to implement all the new strategies. For obvious reasons the followers have to be on the same line as the company leaders since they are the ones to execute the changes, even during the difficult parts of the company’s transformation....

References: Armenakis, A. A., Harris, S. G., & Mossholder, K. W., 1993. Creating Readiness for Organizational Change. Available on: http://hum.sagepub.com.ezproxy.leidenuniv.nl:2048/content/46/6/681.abstract (Accessed on 20 May 2013).
Bruch, H., Gerber, P., Maier, V., 2005. Strategic change decisions: Doing the right change right. Available on:http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.leidenuniv.nl:2048/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=b7ba45e6-e4d0-479c-858f-90d4f8ce6e39%40sessionmgr198&vid=2&hid=103 (Accessed on 20 May 2013).
Duck, J., 1993. Managing Change The art of balancing. Available on: http://hbr.org/1993/11/managing-change-the-art-of-balancing/ar/1 (Accessed on 20 May2013).
Dicke, C, 2007. Employee engagement & change management. Available on: http://est05.esalestrack.com/eSalesTrack/Content/Content.ashx?file=8a9f2c20-ed9b-4cee-b720-dd72801cdd26.pdf (Accessed on 20 May 2013).
Elam, S. & Christensen, T. (2009). Helping Employees Adapt to Change at Texas Children 's Hospital. Available on: http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-why-case-study.htm (Accessed on 20 May 2013).
Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L., 2002. Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. Available on: http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=buy.optionToBuy&id=2002-12397-006 (Accessed on 20 May 2013)
Lawrence, P. R., 1969. How to deal with resistance to change. Available on: http://hbr.org/1969/01/how-to-deal-with-resistance-to-change (Accessed on 20 May 2013).
Maven, 2012. Why is change management important? Available on http://www.maventraining.co.uk/media/26/1126-quick-guide-why-is-change-management-important.pdf (Accessed on 20 May 2013).
McNish, M., 2001. Guidelines for managing change: A study of their effects on the implementation of new information technology projects in organizations. Available on:http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.leidenuniv.nl:2048/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=5f78970f-8905-423b-bd9d-b16d19de4339%40sessionmgr115&vid=6&hid=103 (Accessed on 20 May 2013).
Raineri, A. B., 2011. Change management practices: Impact on perceived change results. Available on: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0148296309002999 (Accessed on 20 May 2013)
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