Change Management - Kodak

Topics: Change management, Innovation, Rochester, New York Pages: 13 (3511 words) Published: January 1, 2014

CONTENT PAGE

Page
1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Organizational “Metamorphosis”

1.2

Focusing the “Focus”

1.3

Legacy of Kodak

1.4

The Kodak “Plunge”

2.

TECHNO-VATION

2.1

Literature Review (Technology and Innovation)

2.2

Analysis

3.

CULTURAL BLUEPRINT

3.1

Literature Review (Organisational Culture)

3.2

Analysis

4.

CHANGE RESISTANCE

4.1

Literature Review (Change Management Models)

4.2

Analysis

5.

RECOMMENDATIONS

5.

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

1. INTRODUCTION
“Changing organizations is as messy as it is exhilarating, as frustrating as it is satisfying, as muddling-through and creative a process as it is a rational one.” (Palmer et al, 2009). 1.1 Organizational “Metamorphosis”

Change is the only constant that has kept any entity relevant and viable in any aspect. Throughout the centuries, it is notable that by changing and adapting to the environment, an entity will be able to survive or it will get obsolete and ultimately disappear. Relating the above to managing and leading strategic changes, organizations will have to rapidly evolve in an attempt to survive the onslaught of various enmity such intense competitions, technological advancements, consumer needs, etc. to maintain profitability and most importantly business sustainability. Globalization in its path, has brought about interconnection of the global marketplaces and sharing of information like never before, resulting in consumers demanding better services and products at lower costs (Daft, 2009, p8). These resultants has created immense pressure on numerous organizations to strategize in keeping operating cost low and concurrently yield viable product innovations from research and development along with feasible marketing of these products.

In another article by Mckee et al (1989), it was highlighted that there are two extremities in strategy in which an organization can adopt, one extreme would be to maintain external focus on market changes but at significant cost; on the other hand it could also focus internally on narrow product-market but with high risk of failing if the market changes. Hence, careful calibration between the benefits and costs pertaining to adaptability contributes significantly to any business strategy.

1.2 Focusing the “Focus”
Specific to this paper, Kodak was selected as the organization of choice for critical analysis and evaluation due to its prominence in the international photography arena. The paper will first briefly introduce the background and fall of Kodak to understand the type of environment that Kodak was operating in and the crisis that Kodak faced. Following which, section 2 to 4 will cover on the literature reviews, analysis while section 5 will cover on the recommendation of the models involved which Kodak should have utilized with application of change management models such as Kotter and Schlesinger Six Change Approach Model addressing change management.

1.3 Legacy of Kodak
Kodak has its history dated back to the end of 1800s in London where the country was the centre of the business and photography world. With its revolutionary product being the Kodak Camera preloaded with 100 exposures, the foundation of providing photography to everyone was established. Kodak’s founder, Mr. Eastman sought to build the Kodak’s business on 4 fundamental principles. The first principle being mass production at low cost leveraging on the economy of scale; the second principle being international distribution which lifted the barrier of limitation to only professional hence enabling amateurs to try their hands on photography; the third principle was investing in extensive advertisement of its products and the last principle being customer centric in fulfilling customers’ needs. In addition, Mr. Eastman also implemented 3 policies to...

References: Bernard, H. and Pelto, P. 1987. Technology and social change. Prospect Heights: Waveland.
Cameron, K. and Quinn, R. 1999. Diagnosing and changing organizational culture. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.
Daft, R. 2001. Organization theory and design. Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western College Pub..
Deutsch, C. 2008. At Kodak, Some Old Things Are New Again. The New York Times, 2 May.
Kanter, R. 1997. Rosabeth Moss Kanter on the frontiers of management. [Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press].
Kodak.com. 1888. History of Kodak. [online] Available at: http://www.kodak.com/ek/US/en/Our_Company/History_of_Kodak/Imaging-_the_basics.htm [Accessed: 30 Aug 2013].
Kotter, J., Schlesinger, L. and Sathe, V. 1979. Organization. Homewood, Ill.: R.D. Irwin.
Mckee, D., Varadarajan, P. and Pride, W. 1989. Strategic adaptability and firm performance: a market-contingent perspective. The Journal of Marketing, pp. 21--35.
Mui, C. 2012. How Kodak Failed. Forbes, 18 January.
Palmer, I., Akin, G. and Dunford, R. 2009. Managing organizational change. Boston, Mass. [u.a.]: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Pangarkar, N. 2012. High performance companies. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia).
Schein, E. 2004. Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Schumpeter, J. and Opie, R. 1934. The theory of economic development. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Spaulding, W. 1982. Technological Advances: Discovery, Invention, Innovation, Diffusion, Research and Development. [online] Available at: http://thismatter.com/economics/technological-advances.htm [Accessed: 31 Aug 2013].
The Economist. 2013. The last Kodak moment?. [online] Available at: http://www.economist.com/node/21542796 [Accessed: 30 Aug 2013].
The Strategy Tank. 2006. Untitled. [online] Available at: http://www.martinfrost.ws/htmlfiles/oct2011/What-Went-Wrong-At-Eastman-Kodak.pdf [Accessed: 30 Aug 2013].
Uri.edu. 1980. Organizational Culture. [online] Available at: http://www.uri.edu/research/lrc/scholl/webnotes/Culture.htm [Accessed: 31 Aug 2013].
REFERENCES
http://books.google.com.sg/books?hl=en&lr=&id=CmFjF5tNmuEC&oi=fnd&pg=PR19&dq=organisation+adaptability&ots=XqDJzMBTqe&sig=1n8VSvP1txkw1MDiVAkjysTHLPM#v=onepage&q=organisation%20adaptability&f=false (Daft, 2009)
http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1251340?uid=3738992&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21102578393363 (Mckee et al, 1989)
http://www.aomevents.com/media/files/ISS%202012/ISS%20SESSION%204/Robertson.pdf
http://www.forbes.com/sites/lisaquast/2012/11/26/overcome-the-5-main-reasons-people-resist-change/
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/02/technology/02kodak.html?_r=0 (Deutsch, 2008)
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