CHANGE MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT
CIPRIAN TRIPON MARIUS DODU
1. Defining Organization
2. Theories on Organization Change 10 3. On Organization Development 4. Organizational Diagnosis 76 5. Collection and Analysis of Information and Data 83 6. Interventions in Change Management Programs and in Organization Development Programs 92 7. On Resistance to Change 99 Bibliography 120 47
1. DEFINING ORGANIZATION
In order to discuss the issue of change at the organizational level, we must first of all define the concept of organization. We will not place too much of an emphasis on this aspect, but merely try to offer an overall idea of the matter. The paradigm we adhere to – concerning the definition of organization – is the systematic one: an organization is an open system (engaged in exchanges of matter, energy and information with the environment), of a biological type (it is „born”, it appears at a clearly defined moment in time, and progresses/regresses later on; it is able to adapt to the environment). More specifically, an organization is “a consciously coordinated social entity, with a relatively identifiable boundary, which functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or a set of goals”1. In other words, a discussion on organization must necessarily begin by defining the term “system”. Ludwig von Bertalanffy was the first theoretician who formulated the
principles of the general theory of systems, in 1950. According to his definition, a system is “a total of elements that are interacting”2. Kast and Rosenzweig believe that a system is “an organized unitary whole composed of two or more interdependent parts, components, or subsystems and delineated by identifiable boundaries”3 . To sum up the diverse definitions offered for this notion, we may conclude that the concept of “system” indicates interdependence, interconnectedness, and interrelation between the elements of a set that is constituted as a whole or an identifiable gestalt4. We will continue with a brief presentation of the main features of an open system, as seen by Katz, Kahn and Hanna.
Robbins, P. Stephen- Organization Theory, decond edition, 1987, Prantice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, p. 5. 2 French, Wendell and Bell, H. Cecil, jr.- Organization Development, 1999, Pranctice Hall, New Jersey, p. 82. 3 ibidem. 4 ibidem.
All systems are mechanisms that transform input in output by way of an internal mechanism that differs from one system to another. The input represents energy, matter or information, and guarantees the system‟s subsistence. The transformation mechanism refers to those specific activities of the organization which modify and convert the input into output (see graph 1).
Sourses of energiy, matter, information,
Internal interface of internal External interface of internal feedback mechanisms
Figure 1. A SYSTEM‟S INTERACTION WITH ITS ENVIRONMENT5 Every system has identifiable boundaries that represent the interface between that system and its environment. These borders are permeable, but it must be noted that most changes and activities take place within them, not outside them. In other words, the system‟s
French, Wendell and Bell, H. Cecil, jr.- Organization Development, 1999, Pranctice Hall, New Jersey, p. 83.
activity is mostly internal, and its relations with the environment are a mere fraction of the processes and activities that undergo within it. An open system has goals and objectives that indicate the reasons for which that particular entity exists and functions. These goals and objectives cannot exist irrespectively of the values and requirements of their environment. Certainly, each system manifests a certain degree of autonomy (that is different from one system to another, depending on its features, the type of...
Bibliography: French, Wendell and Bell, H. Cecil, jr.- Organization Development, 1999, Pranctice Hall, New Jersey, p. 83.
Robbins, P. Stephen- Organization Theory, ed. a doua, 1987, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, p. 9.
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