Module No: Set-1 & 2
Date of submission: 4th February 2013
Directorate of Distance Education
Sikkim Manipal University
II floor, Syndicate House
Manipal - 576104
_____________________ ______________________ ______________________ Signature of Coordinator Signature of Center
Signature of Evaluator MU0018
Q1.How do change managers recognize resistance of employees to change? Ans. When change is announced one can see signs of , anger , irritation , frustration, quick criticism ranging from mild to intense will appear. The most common way to recognize resistance is
* Gossips: Listen to what people are saying once change is introduced. Whether it’s your break room, water cooler or coffee stations, people will be talking and some may be fueling the fire to build change resistance relationships. * Direct Defiance: Some people will not discuss the change and will ignore it. They will not cooperative to implement change. There may be wholesale denial of any change. * Testing: Some employees will test out what would happen when they resist the change. They will not turn up to a meeting or may openly challenge a decision. Resistance need not always be out in open. It can be
* Covert: It is the deliberate form of resistance to change, but done in a manner such that it allows the perpetrators to seem as though they are not resisting. It can be in form of
Loss of loyalty to organization
There may be sabotage of various kinds.
* Overt: It does not try to hide, as it is the result of either of someone comfortable with their power, or someone for whom covert acts are against their values, or someone who may be desperate. Although overt active resistance is potentially damaging, it is at least visible and there is the option of using formal disciplinary actions. It can be expressed through
Passive resistance: It occurs when people do not take any specific action. Their main tool will be to refuse to collaborate with the change. They may agree and then do nothing to fulfill their commitments. This could become very difficult to address, as the resisters would have particularly not done anything wrong. *
Active Resistance: It occurs when people take specific and deliberate actions to resist change such as Vocal complaints by employees, engaging in a work slowdown, threating a strike, organizing other to create an underground resistance movement. Resistance to change can occur by
* Individual action: People with less power may go for passive refusal and covert action and those with more power, the resistance many include open challenge and criticism. An individual action must be handled individually. * Collective action: When people find a common voice in the organized resistance, then their words and actions create a significant threat to the change. For example: Trade unions.
Q2. Explain any two process based change models? Ans. The two process based change models are
1. Kurt Lewin’s model of change: This model consists of following three steps 1. Unfreeze:This stage is about getting ready to change. It involves getting to a point of understanding that change is necessary and getting ready to move away from our current comfort zone. It involves moving ourselves or a department or an entire business towards motivation for change. Key to this is developing a compelling message showing why the existing way of doing things cannot continue. This is easiest to frame when you can point to declining sales figures, worrying customer satisfaction surveys etc. These show that things have to change in a way that everyone can understand. 2. Transition/change: It is the inner movement or journey one make in reaction to a change. It occurs as...
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