FACULTY OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
BM 775 – MASTER IN OFFICE SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT
OSM732 – MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
SEMESTER MARCH 2012 – JULY 2012
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS
Define the meaning of the term ‘culture’. (2 marks)
Culture describes patterns of behaviors that from a durable template by which ideas and
images can be transferred from one generation to another, or from one group to another.
List Deal and Kennedy’s four (4) types of culture. Provide an example for each type. (8 marks)
Terrence Deal and Allan Kennedy defined four types of organisational culture:
Tough-Guy, Macho Culture
Work hard and Play Hard Culture
Bet-Your-Company High-stakes Culture
The four cultures
1.Work-hard, play-hard culture
This has rapid feedback/reward and low risk, leading to:
Stress coming from quantity of work rather than uncertainty. High-speed action leading to high-speed recreation.
Eg. Restaurants, software companies.
2.Tough-guy macho culture
This has rapid feedback/reward and high risk, leading to:
Stress coming from high risk and potential loss/gain of reward. Focus on the present rather than the longer-term future.
Eg. police, surgeons, sports.
This has slow feedback/reward and low risk, leading to:
Low stress, plodding work, comfort and security. Stress may come from internal politics and stupidity of the system. Development of bureaucracies and other ways of maintaining the status quo. Focus on security of the past and of the future.
Eg. banks, insurance companies.
This has slow feedback/reward and high risk, leading to:
Stress coming from high risk and delay before knowing if actions have paid off. The long view is taken, but then much work is put into making sure things happen as planned. Eg. aircraft manufacturers, oil companies.
According to Robert E. Quinn and Kim S. Cameron at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, there are four types of organizational culture: Clan, Adhocracy, Market, and Hierarchy. Clan oriented cultures are family-like, with a focus on mentoring, nurturing, and “doing things together.” Adhocracy oriented cultures are dynamic and entrepreneurial, with a focus on risk-taking, innovation, and “doing things first.” Market oriented cultures are results oriented, with a focus on competition, achievement, and “getting the job done.” Hierarchy oriented cultures are structured and controlled, with a focus on efficiency, stability and “doing things right.”
Briefly explain with five (5) reasons why do people resist to change in an organization.
1. Fear of the unknown/surprise: This type of resistance occurs mainly when change is implemented without warning the affected stakeholders before the change occurs. When change (especially what is perceived as negative change) is pushed onto people without giving them adequate warning and without helping them through the process of understanding what the change will include and how their jobs/work will be affected, it can cause people to push back against the change due to their fear of the unknown. 2. Mistrust: If the individuals in a department highly respect their manager because the manager has built up trust over a period of time, the team will be more accepting of any changes. If the manager is new and has not yet earned the trust of their employees (like my client), then mistrust can manifest itself into resistance to change. 3. Loss of job security/control: This type of resistance often occurs when companies announce they will be restructuring or downsizing. This causes fear among employees that they will lose their jobs or be moved into other positions without their input. 4. Bad timing: As the old saying goes, “Timing is everything”. Heaping too much change on...
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