03chapter3

Topics: Change management, Management, Strategic management Pages: 27 (6993 words) Published: January 5, 2015
University of Pretoria etd – Ströh, U M (2005)

OVERVIEW OF CHAPTER 3:

Approaches to Change Management

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION → INTERPRETIVE APPROACH → CRITICAL PARADIGM → POSTMODERNISM → CHAOS AND COMPLEXITY THEORIES → RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT Background

Key concepts

Conceptual framework

Research statement,

Findings, Conclusions & Implications

objectives, design
& methodology
CHAPTER 2:

CHAPTER 3:

CHAPTER 4:

STRATEGIC

APPROACHES

MANAGEMENT

TO CHANGE
MANAGEMENT

& CHANGE

EMERGENT
APPROACHES

CHAPTER 5:
RELATIONSHIPS

CHAPTER 6:
METHODOLOGY

& RELATIONSHIP
MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER 7:
FINDINGS

CHAPTER 8:
CONCLUSIONS
& FURTHER
RESEARCH

Traditional
approaches to
change
management
Limitations of the
planned approach
to strategic
management
& change
management
Emergent
approaches to
change
management
Variables that may
influence the
change process

METHODOLOGY & THEORY LINK

Independent variables
Change
management

Planned approach
Scenario A

Emergent approach
Scenario B

Dependent variable
Relationships

Validity & reliability
testing

50

University of Pretoria etd – Ströh, U M (2005)

CHAPTER 3:

Approaches to Change Management
3.1 Introduction
As outlined previously in Chapter 2, the planned approach to strategic management and change management is tightly linked to identifying and managing processes designed to make organisations more successful and competitive. All these processes are internally focused, and they attempt to provide solutions to help management obtain commitment to change and improve productivity with the least resistance. Change plans make the results tangible, help control the processes, guide decision-making and provide security around uncertainties. In this chapter the characteristics of the traditional, planned approach to change management are discussed in depth, and the emergent views of change management are introduced.

3.2 Traditional approaches to change management
Individual change management models can be briefly summarised as follows: Š Kurt Lewin’s classical model: This model is entrenched in the general

systems theory; more specifically, it is concerned with the forces that sustain down-balanced systems or those that break them down (Graetz et al., 2002, p. 99). Stable forces are dominant in a stable system, so if a stable system is to change it needs to reduce all stabilising forces. There are basically three steps in this process: unfreezing, moving and refreezing. Unfreezing involves detaching by communication existing problems. Moving refers to the recognition of a need to change, specifically, cultural change and structural change to establish new values and processes. Refreezing refers to the reinforcement of changes in order to achieve renewed equilibrium (Burnes, 1996).

3. Approaches to Change Management | 51

University of Pretoria etd – Ströh, U M (2005)
Š Socio-technical approach identified the semi-autonomous workgroup

as the foundation for any organisation, and although it was better suited to the demands of business it was less considerate to the basic needs of employees, such as job satisfaction. This approach proposed that both technical and social systems of work should be utilised in order for an organisation to change (Graetz et al., 2002, p. 100).

Š The organisational development school of thought approaches change

on a consulting basis providing a variety of tools to facilitate change. Here, its main emphasis is on team building, personal development and participation. Action research is also emphasised and used to measure and evaluate change through constant feedback during the change process. The subsequent data-collection process involves both the researcher and the participants in the process of change. Strategic change, involves the alignment of the environment and the organisation’s strategy, providing the ability for the organisation...
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