Study Guide

Topics: Moon, Sun, Earth Pages: 6 (917 words) Published: November 28, 2013
REVIEW ASTRONOMY 152 EXAM 1
Chapter 1 (lecture #1)
Light Year & Astronomical Unit (AU) are distances (pgs 4 & 5) know relative sizes of things:
moon, planet, star, solar system, local group of stars, spiral arm, Milkyway/galaxy, clusters of galaxies, super clusters, filaments and voids (pgs 5 & 6)

Chapter 2 (lectures #2 & 3)
Constellations -stars of a constellation may be at very different distances Ancient times constellations loose grouping of stars based on mythology Now constellations are well-defined regions on the sky. (pgs 12-13) Celestial Sphere – NCP, Equator, Altitude = to latitude (pgs 17-18) Ecliptic – remember Sun moves 1o per day and

highest motion +23.5o above or -lowest, 23.5o below
Magnitude – bigger number is fainter, (pgs 15-16)
Factor of 2.512 for each mag, (unaided eye limit ~6)
Seasons – tilt of Earth’s axis (pgs 22-25)
Solar day is longer than the Sidereal day (handout 1)

Chapter 3 Moon and its Cycles (Lectures #5, 6, 7)
Phase of Moon know Full/New/1st/3rd
Waxing phases – evening; Waning phases – morning

(pgs 33-35)

Synodic Period - cycle of phases viewed from Earth, 29.5 days Sidereal Period – 1 orbital period around the Earth (wrt Stars), 27.3 days

Exam 1

Astronomy 152

Chapter 3 (cont’d)
Tidally Locked – we only ever see 1 ‘face’ (Lecture 6) Eclipses: (pgs 36-41)
zone of partial shadow - Penumbra
zone of full shadow - Umbra.
Sun & Moon both have angular diameter ≈ 0.5o
Understand angular size (linear diameter/distance)
Lunar Eclipse - only at Full Moon, can last upto 6 hrs, totality upto 100 min Solar Eclipse, only at New Moon, totality max ~7.5 min
Understand what causes an annular eclipse
Sun’s Atmosphere: corona, chromosphere, photosphere
Nodes, Line of Nodes
Saros Cycle – 18yr 11.33days, but 54+ years or 3 Saros Cycles to return to same place on Earth (Lecture 5; pg 47-48)
Chapter 4 Geocentric/Heliocentric Cosmologies (lecture #8,9 & 10) Geocentric – Earth is center of Universe
Key Players:

Plato/Aristotle/Ptolemy/Eratosthenes

Epicycle
Retrograde motion (pgs 57-58)
Parallax - angle inversely proportional to distance
Heliocentric - Sun is center (pgs 60-63)
Copernicus/Tycho Brahe/Galileo/Kepler
Kepler’s 3 laws (pgs 67-69 & handout 2)

Exam 1 Review

Astronomy 152

Chapter 5 Gravity (lectures # 10 & 11)
Gravity - weakest of 4 forces
Galileo 1st to do experiments (pgs 70-, 79-)
(heavy and light objects fall at the same rate)
Velocity/Acceleration – vectors – have both a value and direction Weight/Mass
Newton
Newton’s 3 laws (pgs 80-82 & Handout #2)
Newton’s law of Universal Gravitation; force of gravity ~ 1/distance2 Orbits - Newton explains Kepler’s 3rd law (pgs 84-)
(Constant velocity, but changing direction is still an acceleration = circular orbit) & Center of Mass – balance point closest to more massive object Tides - caused by both Moon and Sun (pg 89-90)

Spring vs Neap
Lets make a “Top 10 List” & Quick Questions ….
Gravity - is a(n) ___________ force that varies as ______________ Keplers showed planets move in ______________
Heliocentric model – put forth by _____________ and ___________ is in the center Geocentric Model – believed by ______________ and has the ___________ at the center Retrograde motion is the apparent __________ motion of a planet on the _____________ Eclipses can only occur when the moon is ___________ and near the ________________ Daily motion of the sky; it moves from _________ to ____________ at ________ degrees per hour.

Latitude vs altitude – the altitude of Polaris in the Northern hemisphere is equal to your _________
Constellations – are now considers to be _____________
An orbiting body, with constant velocity, can be accelerating, because: ____________________
Exam 1 Review

Astronomy 152

*Some choices
Attractive/repulsive/distance/distance squared/”1 over” distance squared/ circles/parabolas/ellipses/
Greeks/Copernicus/Galileo/lots of people/modern science/Earth/Sun/Moon...
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